In the broad sense of the word, culture encompasses social behaviour, beliefs, codes, customs, and norms. According to one of the main theorists of cultural materialism, Raymond Williams, there are three types of culture: dominant, residual, and emergent. They are related to the present, the past, and the future.
Dominant culture is the actually operative culture in a given historical period. Residual culture is both part of the dominant culture and at some distance from it. It is often linked to past events that have been incorporated into the dominant culture and structure it to varying degrees. Emergent culture encompasses new, emergent practices and values that are more than a temporary fashion but not yet integrated in the dominant culture.